What is the origin of CRM?
CRM (originally Cockpit Resource Management) originated from a NASA workshop in 1979 with an NTSB recommendation made during their investigation of the 1978 United Airlines Flight-173 crash in which a DC-8 crew ran out of fuel over Portland, Oregon while troubleshooting a landing gear problem.
The evolution of CRM (now Crew Resource Management) over the years has changed the letter ‘C’ to “Crew” because CRM involves the entire flight and ground crew including ATC. The basic principles of CRM emphasize the Non-Technical aspects of Airmanship and are part of required training for PIC type rating and SIC type rating.
What is Airmanship?
Airmanship is to operate an aircraft: SAFELY, EFFICIENTLY, and EFFECTIVELY, Utilizing;
Technical (Knowledge and Skill) and
Non-Technical Domains (Attitude / CRM / TEM).
What is CRM and who needs it?
CRM is a discipline that includes skills and procedures providing the means of improving human behavior in interpersonal relationships. CRM is both an observable discipline and a set of behaviors that are essential for pilots with an SIC Type Rating or a PIC Type Rating.
Improved cockpit discipline
Better resource management (inside and outside the cockpit)
Improved personal work habits
Reduction in errors
What is TEM who needs it?
Threat and Error Management (TEM) is a set of knowledge, skills, competencies, techniques, and procedures that when present in aircraft operations ensures a higher level of flight safety. TEM training is essential for pilots with an SIC Type Rating or a PIC Type Rating.
Defined as the methods, techniques, procedures, and CRM disciplines that enable a crew to effectively recognize threats, avoid errors, manage threats and errors, and avoid undesired aircraft states.
Primary TEM countermeasures
Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)
Crew Situational Awareness (SA)
High Quality briefings
Aircraft technology (use and understanding)
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